Visual Categorization with Bags of Keypoints
We present a novel method for generic visual categorization: the problem of identifying the object content of natural images while generalizing across variations inherent to the object class. This bag of keypoints method is based on vector quantization of affine invariant descriptors of image patches. We propose and compare two alternative implementations using different classifiers: Naive Bayes and SVM. The main advantages of the method are that it is simple, computationally efficient and intrinsically invariant. We present results for simultaneously classifying several semantic visual categories. These results clearly demonstrate that the method is robust to background clutter and produces good categorization accuracy even without exploiting geometric information.
Author: Christopher Dance, Xerox Research Centre Europe